Microsoft’s RDBMS product for desktops and enterprise is the SQL Server and SQL Server 2012 is the version released to the market in 2012. The SQL Server 2012 evolved from the 2005 version. The SQL server code started out to be jointly owned by Microsoft and two other companies named Ashton Tate and Sybase. It was released as the desktop product on PS/2 with OS/2 environment back in 1989. By the time several upgrades were released to arrive at the sql server version 2005, Microsoft has own version of the code contributed by Ashton Tate by this time. The 2012 version evolved through 2008, 2008 R2 versions to become the SQL Server 2012.
The SQL Server 2012 grew into the SQL Server 2014 version and the latest product from Microsoft stable is the community technology preview 2016 that has just been released recently. The sql server 2012 adds two major trends to the feature list that was available with the previous 2008 R2 version.
With the SQL Server 2012, Microsoft decided to support only ODBC (open database connectivity). Even the interconnectivity between MS document types supported through OLE was to be dropped. The general release of the SQL Server 2012 came in Mar, 2012 followed by release of Service pack 1 in Nov 2012 and the pack2, in Nov, 2014. The added features include a PowerView. When creating business intelligence reports, you can mash up various data sets in SQL Server 2012 through this feature. Operationally, the AlwaysOn feature adds handling of database failures easier. Multiple copies created by the system in SQL Server 2012 helps make disaster recover quite straightforward. There is even a stripped down version which is not as resources hungry as the full version of the SQL Server 2012 but can let you carry out the most important operations. Programming features enhanced in the SQL Server 2012 include a ColumnStore indexes feature. These are read-only indexes that help optimizing processing queries on large data warehouses. Testing of the SQL Server 2012 procedures and queries can be played out (tried out) on a non-production server without risking crashes affecting your production operations. Operationally, an audit trail is a very important tool for systematic management of the database operations but a security safeguard against malicious activities, if any.
By this point in the development of the SQL Server product, SQL Server 2012 has evolved into an enterprise level DBMS with the ability to handle large volume of enterprise level data, supported by the administrative, program development and security features required for efficient operations. The next upgrade to SQL Server 2012 came in 2014.
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Some of the top on-line sql tutorial are available at Tutorial point, w3 schools, and Java. These are the top 3 contenders in sql tutorial top spots as in Google search list in terms of popularity and authority. There are several others available. Any sql tutorial usually provides an overview of the standardized query language that you could use to query, retrieve and manage data in relational databases. These are designed in such a way that even beginners can go through them and gain in expertise as they progress through these courses. The only prerequisites required of learners of sql tutorial is an understanding of what a database, RDBMS is, and what constitutes a programming language, its structure and how does programming language used to construct a program.
Once a learner is generally proficient in SQL, through the use of one of these sql tutorial, he/she is able to work with any of the many databases in heavy use. These include SQL Server, MySQL, Sybase, DB2, Oracle, Access and many others. Obviously, learning SQL would not help you with the new-fangled “no sql” databases.
Many of these sql tutorial offer certification. Candidates are given certificates based on clearing periodic examinations. These certificates accepted by employers as proof of the person being qualified in the SQL programming language.
Every sql tutorial is structured. The structure may be slightly different depending on which sql tutorial you are going to use. Lets take a closer look on some of the sql tutorial available:
Take your time to get familiar with different options available. Make your deliberated decision considering your priorities and goals.
Please don’t hesitate to contact us if you have any questions regarding sql tutorial. We, at SQL Server Tutorial, always happy to help!
What a database is simply a repository of data. Data are pieces of information that is important for some purpose; business or otherwise. Typically, you would need to add to the repository, pieces of data may need to be updated/ modified. When a piece of data has outlived its purpose, users would like to delete the same. A software system that lets you manage data and meet your needs as described is a Database. Examples of databases we are familiar with would be,
RDMS or relational databases are in popular use for storing such data in an enterprise. These use an organization known as tables. These tables themselves are organized in a manner familiar to all of us as rows of information that has columns to store related pieces of data for that row. Tabular organization helps searching flexibly. Relational databases allow relating multiple tables together for the data finding and manipulation purposes. This is something we do at personal levels too. Our telephone book is a prime example of this organization. A name with first name and second name, telephone number, possibly the address goes into such a phone book. Often important dates like birthday, wedding anniversary and other information are included. One such entry will be a record in a particular database row. Each of the items will go into a column that is common to all the records. Some well-known and popular databases are Oracle, SQL Server and MySQL.
Sometimes the database may be organized in a distributed manner. The data are placed at different physical locations and parts of the database may have copies at different spots on the network.
An associated concept to a database is a database management system. These database products let you store multiple databases and have very large capacities to do so. In a typical business, you may need to store data about customers, sales made, details of your inventory and so on. There is a need for a management process to let the diverse databases work properly. The DBMS or the database management system lets read or write access in a disciplined manner. Authorization of users is managed by the system. Analysis of usage and performance are also provided. Then, of course necessary types of reports are usually provided by these database management systems.
Database and database managers are available on the full spectrum of systems; from mainframes to personal computers and everything in between. Major difference is in the capability of the amount of data that could be handled by the different versions of each product. In all these incarnations of the database products, it is the relational database that is currently used predominantly. All the products use a form of a query language that has become an ANSI as well as ISO standard. This is known as Structured Query language or SQL. This language lets the users specify queries to find data, manipulate or update them. It has commands for changing the structure of the database too.
In simple terms, database management software is a set of software tools that help manage databases. To understand other functions of database management software, one needs to look at what databases are and what they do? Databases are repositories of data. Business and other applications access this data, manipulate/modify it and store it back or may even delete the data records. How the data is organized internally affects how effectively and efficiently data could be found and manipulated. This structure or the arrangement of data inside a database has evolved over time. From hierarchical and networked models, most database today are relational. Data in these relational databases are organized in a tabular fashion. Database management software will make sure such structures are maintained properly. This organization is much like the spreadsheet kind of arrangement like Microsoft Excel. Each row has information or data items that are related to the information contained in the row or record. Most of us are familiar with phone books and they are typically organized in a table. One row of the table is dedicated to details of contact about a particular person. The items in the columns or fields are attributes or information/ data elements related to that person. Names (may be split as first and last names) and phone number would be the minimum amount of details. Work phone, home phone, mobile phone and any number of other details (birthday, and other anniversaries and so on) could be held in such a tabular arrangement.
Some examples of info in a database are:
Why do we need database management software then? Well it is apparent from the prior discussion, you may need to create different kinds of tables, modify its structure sometimes or remove the table entirely. With the relational model it is possible to have multiple tables in a database where another table may have related data. Any organization will need many types of data to be organized in unique databases. Database management software helps with creation of all kinds of database you need.
A DBMS or database management system is a collection of software that helps creation of these databases. The database management software system also implements a query language. The query language lets the user search for relevant data specified through the query language. With relational databases this query language is the SQL or structured query language and is supported by all the relational database management software systems (RDBMSs). Though supposedly standard, each manufacturer has a little twist to the language support through their DB management systems. Essential these are some proprietary extensions to the core functions of the operations defined in the SQL standard. When these data searching and manipulations are carried, one needs records of what operations and changes were done. Thus report generation is an important function of the database management software systems. Often the reporting functions are supported by graphical charting functions to help add meaning to the reported information easily. On-screen viewing and printing support are other functions provided. One important set of features help configure the database management software system and tweak parameters to fine-tune performance. Some examples of RDBMS are Oracle, SQL Server, DB2 and MySQL. A lot of housekeeping work including backup, restore and disaster recovery, etc. are often included in database management systems.